MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs
MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs
MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs multidrug resistent bacteria are becoming common findings in unresolved ear and skin infections.
MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs MULTI DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA
MRSA MULTI DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA: In contrast to MRSP, MRSA is an indigenous component of normal to HUMANS ( NOT dogs). MRSA stands for “Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Aureus
MRSP MULTI DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA: In contrast to MRSA MRSP is native to your English bulldog or French bulldog puppy’s skin (NOT humans). MRSP stands for “Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Pseudintermedius
MRSA IN BULLDOGS
- MRSA is rarely diagnosed in bulldogs and is usually the result of contact with a human carrier.
- Most bulldogs and French bulldogs exposed to MRSA do NOT develop clinical disease, and most will eventually eliminate the organism.
NORMAL: In human’s and animal’s skin, Staphylococci (Aureus in Humans, Psudointermdius in Bulldogs) are classified as COLONIZED (i.e “Normal”).
Staphylococci Psudointermdius bacteria are part of the normal microflora of your bulldog’s skin.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common bacteria found on bulldog’s skin.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION: If your bulldog or French bulldog suffers from an underlying condition that compromises their immune system and/or their skin barrier this “normal” Staph skin bacteria may cause opportunistic skin infections.
like people, colonized animals usually show no adverse effects unless risk factors allow for the development of clinical infection. Those risk factors could be a recent surgical procurement, trauma, skin wounds, and immunosuppression.
Unlike MRSA in people, which is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality, there does not appear to be a significant difference in patient outcome between dogs infected with MSSA (Methicillin SENSITIVE Staph Aureus) vs. MRSA (Methicillin RESISTANT Staph Aureus), possibly because most infections are superficial (pyodermas and otitis) and not invasive.
ALLERGIES: One of the most common causes in bulldogs for a compromised skin barrier is allergies. The two most common allergies known to bulldogs are hypersensitivity to the environment (“Atopy”, “Atopic Dermatitis”) and hypersensitivity to Food (“Food Allergy”).
SKIN PARASITES & MITES: The other frequent underlying causes of compromised skin barrier are parasites such as fleas (Flea Allergy Dermatitis) and mites (demodex and scabies mites).
Allergies and parasites are considered “primary causes”, while most bacterial skin infections (“Pyoderma”) are usually secondary.
RESISTANT: Staphylococci that carry the methicillin-resistant gene are resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotic drugs. Methicillin-resistant infections in pets are an increasing problem in veterinary medicine and are driven by antibiotic pressure (i.e. overuse, indiscriminate, “blanket”, “defensive” etc).
Dr. Kraemer’s MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs V4B MAINTENANCE:
TOPICAL THERAPY: In addition to selective oral antibiotics I highly recommend treating bulldog puppies and adult bulldogs suffering from MRSP pyoderma with daily topical treatment.
Topical therapeutics are highly effective against superficial bacteria dermatitis-like MRSP and MRSA.
1. BULLY ANTISEPTIC MEDICATED SHAMPOOS: frequent baths using a medicated shampoo like Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bulldog Antiseptic Shampoo and V4B Yeasty Bully Shampoo, preferably 10 minutes of contact before rinsing.
2. BULLY ANTISEPTIC MEDICATED WATERLESS GELS: On days you are unable to bathe your bulldog, I recommend you apply a waterless shampoo like Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bulldog Antiseptic Gel, it only takes 30 seconds and is extremely easy to implement.
3. BULLY AFTER SHAMPOO CREAM RINSE CONDITIONER: help hydrate and moisturize the skin, you can use a conditioner like Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bulldog Aloe Oatmeal Soothing Cream Rinse after shampoo conditioner
4. BLEACH: Daily soaks in diluted bleach 1:10 (1 part bleach to 10 parts water). You can sponge, bathe or soak, but don’t rinse, and leave your pet to air dry. You should prepare a fresh new dilute each time you bathe your pet.
5. OTHER ANTISEPTIC THERAPEUTIC TOPICALS: like Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bully skin fold antiseptic XL Wipes and Bully Antiseptic Spray, can be applied daily.
7. Oral Antibiotics: MRSP pyoderma systemic antibiotics are based on culture sensitivity results.
- FISH OIL (Omega 3 EFA): like Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bulldog Fish Oil, has anti-inflammatory properties, can improve various skin conditions, and boost up the immune system.
- IMMUNE SUPPORT: Dr. Kraemer’s V4B Bulldog Immune Support, can also help to enhance the immune system.
- PRE/PROBIOTICS: bulldogs suffering from MRSP pyoderma are usually on long-term antibiotics. Prolong use of antibiotics will likely affect the gut good bacteria and cause dysbiosis (bad gut bacteria), thus supplementing with probiotics, prebiotics, and digestive enzymes might be required. Dr. Kraemer V4B line offers a bully LOAD UP probiotics and bully maintenance KEEP UP one.
9. MANUKA OIL: Essential oils from plants have long been used for medicinal purposes due to their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and insecticidal properties. Manuka oil has excellent antimicrobial activity and inhibits biofilm production. I don’t know enough about this oil’s use in bulldog skin infections, how to apply it, how often, and if there are any drug interaction issues. I recommend you do some of your own research before using it.
Dr. Kraemer’s MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs V4B RULE OF THUMB:
MRSP may be isolated from healthy individuals with no signs of disease; this is considered “colonization”, and is distinguished from “infection” wherein the MRSP is causing signs of disease.
Bulldog Pyoderma caused by MRSP can present as any other non-resistant staph strains and is NOT inherently a more dangerous infection.
CULTURE: However, clinically proven MRSP requires the appropriate antimicrobial selection and should be based on culture and susceptibility testing.
HUMANS: Fortunately, infections, and diseases attributed to MRSP are very rare in people, and many of you bulldog and other pet owners have been exposed to it.
Dr. Kraemer’s MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs V4B TIPS & WARNINGS:
Tip #1 BE VIGILANT: While the odds of you picking up MRSA or MRSP from your bulldog are very low, you should be vigilant and aware. Accordingly, the use of proper hygiene and infection control measures is always important, particularly around a pet with an active infection. These measures include:
-HAND WASH: Frequent hand washing after contact with your infected bulldog.
-CONTACT: Avoiding contact with the infected site.
-LAUNDRY: Regular washing (in hot water, with hot air drying, whenever possible) of your bulldog’s bed and other items that come into close and frequent contact with your pet.
-HYGIENE: Keeping your bulldog puppy’s infected site covered.
-CONTACT: Reducing contact with your infected bulldog puppy’s nose, and in general, reducing close contact with your bulldog (snuggling, nuzzling, hugging, and kissing) during the period of infection.
Tip #2 STEM CELL THERAPY: I have been treating chronic Atopic Itch Allergic Dermatitis with secondary MRSP with a new, cutting edge, regenerative medicine, self-healing treatment called Stem Cell Therapy. This state-of-the-art, new, therapeutic treatment is using your pet’s own anti-inflammatory repair cells to enhance healing, repair the immune system, control itch, and reduce inflammation.
Tip #3 CULTURE: In contrast to a typical staphylococcus pyoderma, which often is treated symptomatically with antibiotics, MRSP antibacterial treatment choices should be based on culture and sensitivity testing.
Tip #4 VIRULCNE: Unlike MRSA in people, there is NO indication that MRSP is more virulent than methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), and most reported infections have been treated successfully, though usually take longer to resolve.
Tip #5 TREATMENT DURATION: treating MRSP can take weeks and the treatment duration is much longer than MSSP pyoderma.
Tip #6 TREATMENT RESPONSE: Clinical signs of methicillin-resistant infections are identical to methicillin-sensitive infections. Clinical suspicion of methicillin resistance includes lack of response to appropriate empirical therapy, worsening of signs while receiving therapy, and/or recurrent infections (particularly of the skin and ears).
Tip #7 YEAST & SEBORRHEA: Often methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in bulldogs and French bulldogs are complicated by secondary yeast overgrowth and yeast infections, as well as primary or secondary seborrhea. Both of those secondary medical dermal conditions must be treated appropriately. Dr. Kraemer’s V4B topical and supplements Therapeutic line can help control those medical skin conditions
Tip #8 ZOONOSIS: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is NOT a commensal organism in people and poses a little zoonotic risk.
Tip #9 HYGIENE: All wounds should be kept covered to decrease the risk of environmental contamination. Hand hygiene and environmental disinfection at home are just as important as in the clinic.
Tip #10 EMPIRICAL TREATMENT: A methicillin-resistant infection should be suspected whenever there is a poor response to empiric antibiotics, especially if a patient has a history of treatment with multiple prior antibiotics, with limited improvement.
Tip #11 UNDERLINING PROBLEM: When treating multi-drug resistant staph pyoderma, it is important to also treat the underlying, or predisposing conditions (allergies, parasites, hypothyroid, etc).
Tip #12 RE CHECKS: Have your veterinarian re-evaluate your bulldog during therapy to ensure an appropriate response to treatment.
Tip #13 DISINFECTION: Disinfection of potentially contaminated surfaces is recommended.
Dr. Kraemer’s MRSA and MRSP Infection in Bulldogs and French Bulldogs WARNINGS:
Warning #1 MRSA: Potential risk factors for the acquisition of MRSA colonization by pets include contact with children and contact with hospitalized patients, especially if pets are allowed to lick patients or be fed treats by patients.
Warning #2 MRSA: Although pets that are colonized, or infected with MRSA, most likely contracted the bacteria from people, pets may have the capability to be carriers of MRSA and subsequently pass it back to a human.
Warning #3 CONTACT WITH PETS: Infected, or colonized dogs should be exercised where they will not encounter other dogs. Infected, or colonized cats should be kept indoors.
Warning #4 KISSING: While the infection is active, owners should be discouraged from kissing their pet, or allowing their pet to lick them.
Warning #5SHARING A BED: During treatment, owners should not allow the pet to sleep in their bed, or with children.
Warning #6 MRSA VS MRSP: It is VERY important that you differentiate between MRSA and MRSP. Even though colonization of bulldogs with Staphylococcus Aureus is possible, it is not very common since it is an indigenous component of normal humans, not dogs.
If your bulldog becomes colonized, the pet may serve as a source for infection to people without ever manifesting clinical signs.
Pet owners, rescue members, and veterinary personnel who come in contact with Staphylococcus Aureus colonized pets may then become MRSA carriers, which is why proper hygiene in those cases is so important.
Warning #7 EMPIRICAL ANTIBIOTICS: When suspecting MRSP, I do not recommend empirical antibiotic treatment. A culture and sensitivity testing is required in order to assure treatment to which the MRSP is not resistant.
Warning #8 ZOONOSIS: If your bulldog was diagnosed with MRSA (Staphylococcus Aureus) be aware of the potential for zoonotic transmission. In general, the risk of clinical disease is probably low for immunocompetent people (i.e. a healthy immune system), nevertheless, everyone in contact with your dog should be alerted.
Warning #9 IMMUNE COMPROMISED RISKS: Individuals who are immune-compromised, (HIV/AIDS, Chemotherapy, High Doses of immune suppressant drugs like Steroids/ Prednisone and other chemotherapy drugs), are more susceptible to contract MRSP from pets. Those immune incompetent and immune-suppressed individuals should avoid contact with pets and high-risk carriers like healthcare workers. In those cases, it is prudent to contact a family physician and inform him/her of the situation. Precautions should be taken by these individuals to reduce the frequency of contact with open wounds and pet feces.
Warning #10 ANTIBIOTICS: Never treat methicillin-resistant infections in bulldogs with beta-lactam antibiotics (i.e. penicillins and cephalosporins), even if your veterinarian reports to you that the susceptibility test shows you can consider it an error.
Warning #11 TREATMENT DURATION: One of the most common reasons for partial response to antibiotic treatment of Pyoderma is too short a duration. In addition, insufficient duration, or non-compliant owners, can lead to bacterial multidrug resistance.
“An Ounce of PREVENTION is Worth a Pound of CURE”
*This guide was compiled courtesy of Dr. Kraemer, a “must-read” manual for any current, or future, bully owner.